17 November, 2015

Windows Server 2008

Abstract
The Windows Server 2008 Foundation Network Guide provides instructions on how to plan and deploy the core components required for a fully functioning network and a new Active Directory domain in a new forest. Using this guide, you can deploy computers configured with the following Windows server components:
·         The Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) server role
·         The Domain Name System (DNS) server role
·         The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server role
·         The Network Policy Server (NPS) role service of the Network Policy and Access Services server role
·         The Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) feature
·         Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol version 4 (TCP/IP) connections on individual servers

This guide also serves as a foundation for companion guides that show you how to deploy additional network technologies in Windows Server 2008.

Network hardware requirements
To successfully deploy a foundation network, you must deploy network hardware, including the following:
·      Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, or Gigabyte Ethernet cabling
·      A hub, Layer 2 or 3 switch, router, or other device that performs the function of relaying network traffic between computers and devices.
·      Computers that meet the minimum hardware requirements for their respective client and server operating systems.

Technology Overviews
The following sections provide brief overviews of the required and optional technologies used to create a foundation network.
Active Directory Domain Services
A directory is a hierarchical structure that stores information about objects on the network. A directory service, such as AD DS, provides the methods for storing directory data and making this data available to network users and administrators. For example, AD DS stores information about user accounts, such as names, passwords, phone numbers, and so on, and enables other authorized users on the same network to access this information.
DNS
DNS is a name resolution protocol for TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet or an organization network. A DNS server hosts the information that enables client computers to resolve easily recognized, alphanumeric DNS names to the IP addresses that computers use to communicate with each other.
DHCP
DHCP is an IP standard for simplifying management of host IP configuration. The DHCP standard provides for the use of DHCP servers as a way to manage dynamic allocation of IP addresses and other related configuration details for DHCP-enabled clients on your network.
Every computer on a TCP/IP network must have an unique IP address. The IP address (together with its related subnet mask) identifies both the host computer and the subnet to which it is attached. When you move a computer to a different subnet, the IP address must be changed. DHCP allows you to dynamically assign an IP address to a client from a DHCP server IP address database on your local network.
For TCP/IP-based networks, DHCP reduces the complexity and amount of administrative work involved in reconfiguring computers.
WINS (optional)
While DNS is a required component of a foundation network, WINS is optional because, like DNS, it is a naming service. In some cases, you might not need both DNS and WINS, but older operating systems and applications might require WINS. For medium to small networks, WINS is extremely easy to install and manage, and it is not resource-intensive. If you are in doubt about whether you need WINS, you can test your network functionality without it and install it if needed.
WINS provides a distributed database for registering and querying dynamic mappings of NetBIOS names for computers and groups used on your network. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses and was designed to solve the problems arising from NetBIOS name resolution in routed environments. WINS is the best choice for NetBIOS name resolution in routed networks that use NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
NetBIOS names are used by earlier versions of Windows operating systems to identify and locate computers and other shared or grouped resources required to register or resolve names for use on the network.
NetBIOS names are a requirement for establishing networking services in earlier versions of Windows operating systems. Although the NetBIOS naming protocol can be used with network protocols other than TCP/IP (such as NetBEUI or IPX/SPX), WINS was designed specifically to support NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT).
WINS simplifies the management of the NetBIOS namespace in TCP/IP-based networks.
NPS (optional)
Network Policy Server (NPS) allows you to centrally configure and manage network policies with the following three features: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server, RADIUS proxy, and Network Access Protection (NAP) policy server.
NPS is an optional component of a foundation network, but you should install NPS if any of the following are true:
·      You are planning to expand your network to include any remote access servers that are compatible with the RADIUS protocol, such as a computer running Windows Server 2008 and Routing and Remote Access service.
·      You plan to deploy NAP.
·      You plan to deploy 802.1X wired or wireless access.
TCP/IP
TCP/IP in Windows Server 2008 is the following:
·      Networking software based on industry-standard networking protocols.
·      A routable, enterprise networking protocol that supports the connection of your Windows-based computer to both local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) environments.
·      Core technologies and utilities for connecting your Windows-based computer with dissimilar systems for the purpose of sharing information.
·      A foundation for gaining access to global Internet services, such as the World Wide Web and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers.
·      A robust, scalable, cross-platform, client/server framework.
TCP/IP provides basic TCP/IP utilities that enable Windows-based computers to connect and share information with other Microsoft and non-Microsoft systems, including:
·      Windows Vista
·      Windows Server 2003 operating systems
·      Windows XP
·      Internet hosts
·      Apple Macintosh systems
·      IBM mainframes
·      UNIX systems
·      Open VMS systems
·      Network-ready printers, such as HP LaserJet series printers that use HP JetDirect cards 

23 February, 2015

SAP Stands For

SAP - System Application & Products
SAP is basically designed to create a common centralized database for all the applications running in all the departments in an organization. The kind of application you can manage includes -
·         Logistics
·         Finances
·         Reporting
·         HR etc.
The original name for SAP was : Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte (In German). The system comprises of a number of fully integrated modules, which covers virtually every aspect of the business management.
The Key benefits of SAP are :-
·         It Eliminates the duplication and redundancy in data.
·         Increases productivity, efficiency and better management of resources.
·         Improves Customer Service through better Customer Interaction.

27 January, 2015

How to remove shortcut virus from PC

HOW TO REMOVE SHORTCUT VIRUS FROM PC/LAPTOP OR PEN DRIVE ?
Method#1
1.       Open CMD. (Go to Run > type CMD > hit enter)
2.       Now you need to write one simple command. Just write the command which is shown below.

 attrib -h -s -r -a /s /d DRIVENAME:*.* press ENTER

Now replace the “Drive-Name” with your drive name. Lets assume you want to remove the shortcut virus from the drive C then your command

will be
 attrib -h -s -r -a /s /d C:*.*

3. Now hit the enter button. And your all the shortcut virus will be removed. And now you can simply go back and delete the shortcut folder normally.
METHOD#2
.Bat file is nothing but its an execution of any file. You can make a .bat file easily using notepad and you have to write the same command which I mentioned above. In case if the above CMD method don’t work try this. And also using this method you can remove the shortcut virus from all of your drive in just one single step while in CMD method you’ll have to do it separately one by one.

1.       Open Notepad. (Run > type Notepad)
2.       Copy the below code and paste it on the notepad file which you just opened.

@echo off

attrib -h -s -r -a /s /d Drive-Name:*.*
   
attrib -h -s -r -a /s /d Drive-Name:*.*

attrib -h -s -r -a /s /d Drive-Name:*.*

@echo complete

3.       Now replace the “Drive-Name” with your drive.
4.       Save the notepad file as removeshortcutvirus.bat and save it. Make sure you save file in desktop.
5.       Now double click on the file and run it.
6.       Now all the shortcut virus will be removed from your drives.

22 January, 2015

Technical Part of a Full STM 1890 Port

Technical part


- ASR (Answer-Seize Rtaio) will be minimum 40%+

Answer-Seizure Ratio (ASR)

It is the ratio between the successful calls and the attempted calls that cannot be answered for any reason. In case of lower ASR, it is expected that the route provided to the call is choked-up for the subscribers to make phone calls.

- ACD (Average Call Duration) will be minimum 8.5 minute

Average Call Duration (ACD)

It is the total amount of time taken by the call. In case of lower ACD, it is expected that the quality of the connection is not good enough for the subscriber to continue the call. 

- PDD (Post Dial Delay) will be maximum 1 sec

Post Dial Delay (PDD)

On dialing phone number, either there is a ring or busy tone that tells us that whether the called party is available or not. The time elapsed between dialing a number and hearing a tone is referred to as Post Dial Delay (PDD). In case of higher PDD, it is expected that there is no dial tone for the subscriber to initiate a call. 


  • Proper CLI (Command Line Interpreter)display, no prefix (specially 880) or suffix addition in CLI for standard ANI i.e. numeric 8 digit
  • No voice break, no one sided voice
  • Total capacity must be 600 channel
  • No mixing in route, the route we have tested only that RTP will be considered

20 September, 2013

Hide Your Computer Drive

Now-a-days computer end users have faced most common problems that how can they hide computer drive with a easiest way and also recover it again and they don't know how to solved it. I must said that this article wrote for those end users who really don't know how to solved it. Just stay tune with me, keep patience and follow my following instructions with the real scenario. Hopefully you can easily understood my instructions.

Step 1:
Click start button go Accessories click run command button, then type cmd in run command dialog box.

runcommand

Step 2:
You can show your desired command prompt window.

commandpromptwindow

Step 3:
Type diskpart and press enter key.

diskpartcommandimage

Step 4:
Type list volume and press enter key. You can easily show your harddrive list with index number in detail.

listvolume

Step 5:
Here you can show all drive letters with detail. Now you can hide your desired drive just select your hard drive letter and type DISKPART> select volume 5 (suppose you want to hide drive letter I:, 5 is the index number of this drive letter).

selectvolumenumber


Step 6:
A message appears on your screen that Volume 5 is the selected volume.
Then type DISKPART> remove letter I press enter key

removeletter


Step 7:
A message appears on your screen that DiskPart successfully removed the drive letter or mount point.
Then you can click the computer icon in desktop window and you can show that your desired drive I: doesn't appear. 

Step 8:
You can also recover your drive and appears it once again. just repeat my following step 1 to step 5. Then you can type DISKPART> assign letter I and press enter key

assignletter

Now, you can easily appears your desired drive. 

02 April, 2013

OSI Model


OSI Model


(Open Systems Interconnection model) The International Standards Organization's OSI model serves as a standard template for describing a network protocol stack.



osimodel

The Protocol Stack

Using TCP/IP as a model, the sending application hands data to the transport layer, which breaks it up into the packets required by the network. It stores the sequence number and other data in its header. The network layer adds source and destination data in its header, and the data link layer adds station data in its header. On the other side, the corresponding layer reads and processes the headers and discards them.


Upper Layers


Layers 7 through 4 comprise the upper layers of the OSI protocol stack. They are more geared to the type of application than the lower layers, which are designed to move packets, no matter what they contain, from one place to another.

Application Layer 7
This top layer defines the language and syntax that programs use to communicate with other programs. The application layer represents the purpose of communicating in the first place. For example, a program in a client workstation uses commands to request data from a program in the server. Common functions at this layer are opening, closing, reading and writing files, transferring files and e-mail messages, executing remote jobs and obtaining directory information about network resources.

Presentation Layer 6
When data are transmitted between different types of computer systems, the presentation layer negotiates and manages the way data are represented and encoded. For example, it provides a common denominator between ASCII and EBCDIC machines as well as between different floating point and binary formats. Sun's XDR and OSI's ASN.1 are two protocols used for this purpose. This layer is also used for encryption and decryption.

Session Layer 5
Provides coordination of the communications in an orderly manner. It determines one-way or two-way communications and manages the dialog between both parties; for example, making sure that the previous request has been fulfilled before the next one is sent. It also marks significant parts of the transmitted data with checkpoints to allow for fast recovery in the event of a connection failure.

In practice, this layer is often not used or services within this layer are sometimes incorporated into the transport layer.

Transport Layer 4
This layer is responsible for overall end-to-end validity and integrity of the transmission. The lower layers may drop packets, but the transport layer performs a sequence check on the data and ensures that if a 12MB file is sent, the full 12MB is received.

"OSI transport services" include layers 1 through 4, collectively responsible for delivering a complete message or file from sending to receiving station without error.



Lower Layers


Layers 3 through 1 are responsible for moving packets from the sending station to the receiving station.

Network Layer 3
The network layer establishes the route between the sender and receiver across switching points, which are typically routers. The most ubiquitous example of this layer is the IP protocol in TCP/IP. IPX, SNA and AppleTalk are other examples of routable protocols, which means that they include a network address and a station address in their addressing system. This layer is also the switching function of the dial-up telephone system. If all stations are contained within a single network segment, then the routing capability in this layer is not required. 

Data Link Layer 2
The data link is responsible for node to node validity and integrity of the transmission. The transmitted bits are divided into frames; for example, an Ethernet, Token Ring or FDDI frame in local area networks (LANs). Frame relay and ATM are also at Layer 2. Layers 1 and 2 are required for every type of communications. 

Physical Layer 1
The physical layer is responsible for passing bits onto and receiving them from the connecting medium. This layer has no understanding of the meaning of the bits, but deals with the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the signals and signaling methods. For example, it comprises the RTS and CTS signals in an RS-232 environment, as well as TDM and FDM techniques for multiplexing data on a line. SONET also provides layer 1 capability.

osilayer



OSI Model

Layer #
Name
Mnemonic
Encapsulation Units
Devices or Components
Keywords/Description
7
Application
All
data
PC
Network services for application processes, such as file, print, messaging, database services
6
Presentation
People
data

Standard interface to data for the application layer. MIME encoding, data encryption, conversion, formatting, compression
5
Session
Seem
data

Interhost communication. Establishes, manages and terminates connection between applications
4
Transport
To
segments

End-to-end connections and reliability. Segmentation/DE segmentation of data in proper sequence. Flow control
3
Network
Need
packets
router
Logical addressing and path determination. Routing. Reporting delivery errors
2
Data Link
Data
frames
bridge, switch, NIC
Physical addressing and access to media. Two sub layers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC)
1
Physical
Processing
bits
repeater, hub, transceiver
Binary transmission signals and encoding. Layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, modulation

OSI comparison with TCP/IP Protocol Stack

OSI #
OSI Layer Name
TCP/IP #
TCP/IP Layer Name
Encapsulation Units
TCP/IP Protocols
7
Application
4
Application
data
FTP, HTTP, POP3, IMAP, telnet, SMTP, DNS, TFTP
6
Presentation
data

5
Session
data

4
Transport
3
Transport
segments
TCP, UDP
3
Network
2
Internet
packets
IP
2
Data Link
1
Network Access
frames

1
Physical
bits


IP ADDRESS


IP address classes

Class
1st Octet Decimal Range
1st Octet High Order Bits
Network/Host ID (N=Network, H=Host)
Default Subnet Mask
Number of Networks
Hosts per Network (Usable Addresses)
A
1 – 126*
0
N.H.H.H
255.0.0.0
126 (27 – 2)
16,777,214 (224 – 2)
B
128 – 191
10
N.N.H.H
255.255.0.0
16,382 (214 – 2)
65,534 (216 – 2)
C
192 – 223
110
N.N.N.H
255.255.255.0
2,097,150 (221 – 2)
254 (28 – 2)
D
224 – 239
1110
Reserved for Multicasting
E
240 – 254
1111
Experimental; used for research

Note: Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions.

Private IP Addresses

Class
Private Networks
Subnet Mask
Address Range
A
10.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
B
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.0.0
255.240.0.0
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
C
192.168.0.0
255.255.0.0
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255





Subnet Masks

Prefix Format
Decimal
Available Host Addresses
/8
255.0.0.0
16777214
/9
255.128.0.0
8388606
/10
255.192.0.0
4194302
/11
255.224.0.0
2097150
/12
255.240.0.0
1048574
/13
255.248.0.0
524286
/14
255.252.0.0
262142
/15
255.254.0.0
131070
/16
255.255.0.0
65534
/17
255.255.128.0
32766
/18
255.255.192.0
16382
/19
255.255.224.0
8190
/20
255.255.240.0
4094
/21
255.255.248.0
2046
/22
255.255.252.0
1022
/23
255.255.254.0
510
/24
255.255.255.0
254
/25
255.255.255.128
126
/26
255.255.255.192
62
/27
255.255.255.224
30
/28
255.255.255.240
14
/29
255.255.255.248
6
/30
255.255.255.252
2